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History[ edit ] Long before the invention of electronic signal processingsome people tried to build machines to emulate human speech. In the German - Danish scientist Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein won the first prize in a competition announced by the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts for models he built of the human vocal tract that could produce the five long vowel sounds in International Phonetic Alphabet notation: Cooper and his colleagues at Haskins Laboratories built the Pattern playback in the late s and completed it in There were several different versions of this Speech sysnthesis device; only one currently survives.
The machine converts pictures of the acoustic patterns of speech in the form of a spectrogram back into sound. Using this device, Alvin Liberman and colleagues discovered acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments consonants and vowels.
It consisted of a stand-alone computer hardware and a specialized software that enabled it to read Italian. A second version, released inwas also able to sing Italian in an "a cappella" style.
Dominant systems in the s and s were the DECtalk system, based largely on the work of Dennis Klatt at MIT, and the Bell Labs system;  the latter was one of the first multilingual language-independent systems, making extensive use of natural language processing methods.
Early electronic speech-synthesizers sounded robotic and were often barely intelligible. The quality of synthesized speech has steadily improved, but as of [update] output from contemporary speech synthesis systems remains clearly distinguishable from actual human speech.
Kurzweil predicted in that as the cost-performance ratio caused speech synthesizers to become cheaper and more accessible, more people would benefit from the use of text-to-speech programs. Noriko Umeda et al.
Clarke was so impressed by the demonstration that he used it in the climactic scene of his screenplay for his novel One of the first was the Telesensory Systems Inc. The Milton Bradley Company produced the first multi-player electronic game using voice synthesis, Miltonin the same year.
Synthesizer technologies[ edit ] The most important qualities of a speech synthesis system are naturalness and intelligibility.
The ideal speech synthesizer is both natural and intelligible. Speech synthesis systems usually try to maximize both characteristics. The two primary technologies generating synthetic speech waveforms are concatenative synthesis and formant synthesis.
Each technology has strengths and weaknesses, and the intended uses of a synthesis system will typically determine which approach is used. Concatenative synthesis Concatenative synthesis is based on the concatenation or stringing together of segments of recorded speech.
Generally, concatenative synthesis produces the most natural-sounding synthesized speech. However, differences between natural variations in speech and the nature of the automated techniques for segmenting the waveforms sometimes result in audible glitches in the output. There are three main sub-types of concatenative synthesis.
Unit selection synthesis[ edit ] Unit selection synthesis uses large databases of recorded speech. During database creation, each recorded utterance is segmented into some or all of the following: Typically, the division into segments is done using a specially modified speech recognizer set to a "forced alignment" mode with some manual correction afterward, using visual representations such as the waveform and spectrogram.
At run timethe desired target utterance is created by determining the best chain of candidate units from the database unit selection.
This process is typically achieved using a specially weighted decision tree. Unit selection provides the greatest naturalness, because it applies only a small amount of digital signal processing DSP to the recorded speech.Enter text and play it back as speech with different voices and settings.
Speech Recognition and Synthesis Speech recognition is a truly amazing human capacity, especially when you consider that normal conversation requires the recognition of 10 to 15 phonemes per second. E SAPR - Speech models - Dan Ellis - 1 EE E Speech & Audio Processing & Recognition Lecture 6: Speech modeling and synthesis Modeling speech signals Spectral and cepstral models Linear Predictive models (LPC) Other signal models Speech synthesis.
Oct 25, · Microsoft Speech Platform - Runtime Languages (Version 11) Important! Selecting a language below will dynamically change the complete page content to that language. Synthesis definition is - the composition or combination of parts or elements so as to form a whole.
How to use synthesis in a sentence. the composition or combination of parts or . So, we can see it as the channel from the user to the website.
The speech synthesis is the other way around, providing websites the ability to provide information to users by reading text.