According to those proposing a change in terminology, "slave" perpetuates the crime of slavery in language, by reducing its victims to a nonhuman noun instead of, according to Andi Cumbo-Floyd, "carry[ing] them forward as people, not the property that they were". Other historians prefer "slave" because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it accurately reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Reconstruction in Practice Slavery, the Economy, and Society At the time of the American revolution, slavery was a national institution; although the number of slaves was small, they lived and worked in every colony.
Even before the Constitution was ratified, however, states in the North were either abolishing slavery outright or passing laws providing for gradual emancipation.
That said, many activists, politicians, journalists, and academics have used half-truths and outright falsehoods about racial issues that divide people and stir up hatred. Slavery definitely had some big economic factors influencing it. Slave trade was a big way of making money in the south. Slave trade was a big way of making money in the south. The triangle trade contributed to the slaves that were imported into the Americas. This paper studies the causes of the American Civil War. There were many other factors that played an important role in the Civil War but most historians still feel that slavery was the main cause of the war although there were complex and difficult political and economic factors.
The nationwide distribution of slaves also changed during this time span. Byit had significantly expanded into the Deep South, particularly Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, following the spread of cotton production.
Had slavery somehow ceased during that expansion, it would have been impossible for the South to meet the worldwide demand for its products. The introduction of the cotton gin resolved this problem and made the use of large numbers of field hands to work the crop economical.
The principal source of slaves for the Cotton Kingdom was the Upper South, which included the states traditionally considered to be border states—Delaware, Maryland, and Kentucky—as well as Missouri, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.
Agriculture in this part of the South was diversifying, and although tobacco and rice remained staple cash crops, more and more acreage was being devoted to wheat, corn, rye, and oats for local consumption.
These cereal grains were not as labor intensive as cotton or tobacco, and planters in the region were finding themselves with more slaves than they needed. Alexandria, Virginia, became a major center of the internal slave trade, and according to one estimate, three hundred thousand slaves were sold from there into the Deep South in the two decades before the Civil War.
Slavery as an economic institution. An even smaller percentage worked as laborers or craftsmen—carpenters, masons, and blacksmiths. But the overwhelming majority of slaves were field hands, picking cotton and planting and harvesting rice, tobacco, and sugar cane. The occupational distribution of slaves reflected the nature of the economy and society of the South, a region that was agricultural and rural with very little industrialization and urbanization compared to the North.
Irrespective of the jobs that slaves did, slavery on the whole was profitable. The expense to planters for housing, clothing, and feeding slaves was considerably less than the value they produced.
Profitability increased steadily in the first half of the nineteenth century, as prices for cash crops rose and the cost of keeping slaves remained level. The slaves themselves became a good investment.
As cotton production expanded and the demand for slaves increased, their prices rose accordingly. The enterprising slave owner bought and sold slaves for an additional source of income. The image of the South as a place where plantation adjoined plantation and the entire white population owned slaves is a myth.
Three quarters of the southern whites owned no slaves at all, and among those that did, most owned fewer than ten. Although the planter class, those individuals who owned twenty or more slaves to work plantations of about a thousand acres, was extremely small, it comprised the southern elite.
A very few plantations were several thousand acres in size and used hundreds of slaves. The planter was an agrarian businessman, deciding how much land to put into cash crops versus foodstuffs, debating whether to buy more slaves or invest in machinery, and always keeping an eye on the market prices of his crops.
Wealth, social position, and lifestyle separated the planter from the farmer who owned just a few slaves and usually labored alongside them in the fields. However, the goal of many small slaveholding farmers was to obtain more slaves and land so they could become planters themselves.
While southern women were expected to be models of virtue, the men were bound by no such standards. Southern women endured the disappointment and humiliation of seeing mulatto children on the plantation who had been fathered by their husbands and sons.
No laws protected slaves from rape by their owners, nor did the white men face any social consequences for their actions. The yeoman families lived much more isolated lives than their counterparts in the North and, because of their chronic shortage of cash, lacked many of the amenities that northerners enjoyed.
Some southern yeomen, particularly younger men, rented land or hired themselves out as agricultural workers. Small farmers did not own slaves, and their prospect for acquiring enough land or money to do so was nil, but they still supported slavery out of strongly held views of racial superiority and because a large free black population would compete with them for a decent living.
The lowest rung on the white social ladder was occupied by people who lived on the most marginal lands in the South—the pine barrens, swamps, and sandy hill country.
Their reputed laziness was primarily due to an extremely inadequate diet; malnutrition left them susceptible to malaria, hookworm, and other diseases that produced lethargy.
Slaves sometimes had better physical living conditions than poor whites. Free blacks in the South. Blacks who managed to buy their freedom or were freed by their masters, a practice outlawed throughout the South during the s, occupied a strange place in society.
While a handful found financial success, even becoming landowners with slaves of their own, the majority were laborers, farm hands, domestics, factory workers, and craftsmen who never escaped poverty.
Religion played an important role in the lives of free blacks, as it did for slaves, and black evangelical churches, particularly Baptist and African Methodist Episcopal AMEflourished. Perhaps because planters felt sentimental toward children they had sired with slaves, mulattos accounted for a significant percentage of the free persons of color.
As a group, mulattos tended to look down on those with darker skin, whether free or slave.This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the . The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier.
Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game. This paper studies the causes of the American Civil War.
There were many other factors that played an important role in the Civil War but most historians still feel that slavery was the main cause of the war although there were complex and difficult political and economic factors.
Economics (/ ɛ k ə ˈ n ɒ m ɪ k s, iː k ə-/) is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services..
Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions.
That said, many activists, politicians, journalists, and academics have used half-truths and outright falsehoods about racial issues that divide people and stir up hatred.
The Events That Caused The American Civil War Causes Of The Civil War Summary States' Rights The Missouri Compromise The Dred Scott Decision The Abolitioni.