Contact Us You are here: If successful, passive sampling methods may provide a more feasible and cost effective approach for measuring PCBs in school and other types of buildings. PCBs were used extensively in school building materials caulk and lighting fixture ballasts during the approximate period of Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations.
The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods.
Methods The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO The Total Viable Count TVC was evaluated at rest in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity and in operational during surgery.
Results The mean TVC at rest was The mean in operational TVC was Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs.
However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information. In particular, the environmental matrices water, air and surfaces play a leading role as reservoirs of microorganisms [ 1 ]: For this reason, hospital environmental control procedures can be an effective support in reducing nosocomial infections [ 167 ].
This is particularly true in high risk healthcare departments where patients are more susceptible because of their health conditions, or in operating theatres because of tissue exposure to air [ 8 - 10 ]. In fact, surgeons were the first to deal with environmental hygiene conditions during high risk surgery in order to reduce post-operative infections [ 1112 ].
Since then, many authors have underlined the importance of microbial surveillance of environmental matrices [ 12513 - 15 ]. A special focus has been placed on microbial air surveillance; in fact, it has been demonstrated that periprosthetic infection rates correlate with the number of airborne bacteria within the wound [ 16 ] and that, in hospital environments, the use of air filtration through a HEPA system completely eliminated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immune-compromised patients [ 17 ].
Through air sampling, it is possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection. However, although there is much published research, procedures have not been firmly established and there is still debate on the sampling techniques to be used, their frequency of application and even on the usefulness of such checks and controls [ 18 ].
In fact, international standards offer different techniques active or passive sampling and different kinds of samplers, thus leaving the choice of system open [ 1819 ]. This system is applicable when the concentration of microorganisms is not very high, such as in an operating theatre and other hospital controlled environments [ 18 - 21 ].
According to some authors, passive sampling provides a valid risk assessment as it measures the harmful part of the airborne population which falls onto a critical surface, such as in the surgical cut or on the instruments in operating theatres [ 23 ].
Several studies have attempted to compare the values of microbial loads obtained through both active and passive samplings, but with inconsistent results: Currently, since air sampling protocols are not standardized, it is difficult to compare results from different studies [ 18 ].
In fact, it has been known for some time that different active samplers show high variability giving different results in the same place at the same time [ 18 ].
Whyte found a correlation between the active and passive method, comparing settle plates with the Active Casella Slit Sampler[ 24 ], while Sayer et al. Sampling was also carried out in different places in the different studies:Indoor Air Sampling and Analysis Guidance is available in Portable Document Format (PDF, 31KB, 8pg.).
Study of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Air of Fuel Oil Heated Homes, a tabulated summary of concentrations for 69 volatile organic chemicals in indoor and outdoor air .
A Comparison Study of Various Types of Ozone and Oxidant Detectors Which Are Used for Atmospheric Air Sampling Four continuous automatic analyzers for measurement of atmospheric levels of ozone were used in a calibration and field study. These were (1) a colorimetric instrument based.
The purpose of this task is to prepare a Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the collection of asbestos fibers from personal breathing space air samples, using standard asbestos sampling techniques (using a calibrated air pump attached to a plastic cassette, which.
but also the comparison of these results to levels of fungi and other airborne matter in an outdoor baseline air sample. Spore count levels in indoor air samples generally should be lower than levels in outdoor air samples. Approved Methods for the Sampling and Analysis of Air Pollutants in New South Wales 1 1.
Introduction Purpose of methods This document lists the methods to be used for the sampling and analysis of air pollutants in. 1 Probability sampling uses random selection to ensure that all members of the group of interest have an equal chance of being selected to participate in the study 2 Stratified sampling (proportional and disproportional): the population studied is divided into groups (“strata”).