John Jingu Contents 1. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet. It includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet. Media are very integral part of our lives as they generate popular interest and debate about any social problem.
Social Movements The Role and Influence of Mass Media Mass media is communication—whether written, broadcast, or spoken—that reaches a large audience. This includes television, radio, advertising, movies, the Internet, newspapers, magazines, and so forth.
Mass media is a significant force in modern culture, particularly in America. Sociologists refer to this as a mediated culture where media reflects and creates the culture. Communities and individuals are bombarded constantly with messages from a multitude of sources including TV, billboards, and magazines, to name a few.
These messages promote not only products, but moods, attitudes, and a sense of what is and is not important. Mass media makes possible the concept of celebrity: In fact, only political and business leaders, as well as the few notorious outlaws, were famous in the past.
As recently as the s and s, television, for example, consisted of primarily three networks, public broadcasting, and a few local independent stations. Not only has availability increased, but programming is increasingly diverse with shows aimed to please all ages, incomes, backgrounds, and attitudes.
What role does mass media play? Legislatures, media executives, local school officials, and sociologists have all debated this controversial question. While opinions vary as to the extent and type of influence the mass media wields, all sides agree that mass media is a permanent part of modern culture.
Three main sociological perspectives on the role of media exist: This theory originated and was tested in the s and s. Critics point to two problems with this perspective. How media frames the debate and what questions members of the media ask change the outcome of the discussion and the possible conclusions people may draw.
Second, this theory came into existence when the availability and dominance of media was far less widespread. Those people who own and control the corporations that produce media comprise this elite.
Advocates of this view concern themselves particularly with massive corporate mergers of media organizations, which limit competition and put big business at the reins of media—especially news media. Their concern is that when ownership is restricted, a few people then have the ability to manipulate what people can see or hear.
For example, owners can easily avoid or silence stories that expose unethical corporate behavior or hold corporations responsible for their actions. The issue of sponsorship adds to this problem. Advertising dollars fund most media. Networks aim programming at the largest possible audience because the broader the appeal, the greater the potential purchasing audience and the easier selling air time to advertisers becomes.
Thus, news organizations may shy away from negative stories about corporations especially parent corporations that finance large advertising campaigns in their newspaper or on their stations. Media watchers identify the same problem at the local level where city newspapers will not give new cars poor reviews or run stories on selling a home without an agent because the majority of their funding comes from auto and real estate advertising.
This influence also extends to programming. Critics of this theory counter these arguments by saying that local control of news media largely lies beyond the reach of large corporate offices elsewhere, and that the quality of news depends upon good journalists.
They contend that those less powerful and not in control of media have often received full media coverage and subsequent support. Predominantly conservative political issues have yet to gain prominent media attention, or have been opposed by the media.
Advocates of this view point to the Strategic Arms Initiative of the s Reagan administration. The public failed to support it, and the program did not get funding or congressional support. Culturalist theory The culturalist theory, developed in the s and s, combines the other two theories and claims that people interact with media to create their own meanings out of the images and messages they receive.
This theory sees audiences as playing an active rather than passive role in relation to mass media. One strand of research focuses on the audiences and how they interact with media; the other strand of research focuses on those who produce the media, particularly the news.
Theorists emphasize that audiences choose what to watch among a wide range of options, choose how much to watch, and may choose the mute button or the VCR remote over the programming selected by the network or cable station. Both groups of researchers find that when people approach material, whether written text or media images and messages, they interpret that material based on their own knowledge and experience.
Thus, when researchers ask different groups to explain the meaning of a particular song or video, the groups produce widely divergent interpretations based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, and religious background. Therefore, culturalist theorists claim that, while a few elite in large corporations may exert significant control over what information media produces and distributes, personal perspective plays a more powerful role in how the audience members interpret those messages.Unlike Simpson, Seib posits that the media are indeed able to change the status quo of foreign policy by shaping international and domestic public opinion.
Seib’s main idea is the “virtual state:” disperse communities achieve an unprecedented cohesion that puts them on the political map internationally. The Role of the Media in the Construction of Public Belief and Social Change. The media play a central role in informing the public about what happens in the world, particularly in those areas in which audiences do not possess direct knowledge or experience.
The media can effectively remove issues from public discussion.
The analysis of. Mass media plays a crucial role in information distribution and thus in the competition, and thus influencing public policy.
He refers to this outcome as ‘mass Our analysis, exploiting both the across-countries and time-series variation in the data, indicates that mass media may have a substantive impact on public policy. The media serves a few important functions in influencing public policy.
First, the media provides a forum for publishers and broadcasters (and their readers and listeners) to present editorial opinions that may influence others. Government officials use the media to communicate with the public.
The media also plays a great role in. The role of the Media in Public Policy. Although many different meanings and interpretations may exist for the term mass media for our analysis on public policy we can say that the mass media is a group that constructs messages with embedded values, and that disseminates those messages to a specific portion of the public in order to achieve.
the role the media performs in influencing state-level public policy innovation (Cook and Barry, ; Crable and Vibbert, ). While media attention plays a vital role in moving events into the public sphere, the and thus public policy.